Het EARTH INSTITUTE is het duurzaamheidsinstituut van de Columbia University in New York. In Transforming Personal Mobility worden scenariostudies gepresenteerd gebaseerd op drie denkbeeldige huishouden- en ruimtelijke situaties in de VS. Eén in Ann Arbor in Michigan ('middle America'), één in de eco-city Babcock Ranch in Florida en één in Manhattan, New York.

Dit is de abstract van het 43 pagina rapport:

This paper presents three distinctly different case studies to assess the personal mobility system that results from combining:
• The “Mobility Internet”
• Self-­‐driving/driverless vehicles
• Shared vehicle systems
• Specific-­‐purpose vehicle designs
• Advanced propulsion systems
Results indicate that this transformational mobility system:
• Is capable of supplying better mobility experiences at radically lower cost under a wide range of circumstances
• Offers substantial sustainability benefits through improved roadway safety, reduced roadway congestion, increased energy efficiency, reduced    emissions, improved land use and enhanced equality of access.
Models that generalize the relationship between the characteristics of geographical regions and the cost and performance of coordinated/shared/driverless mobility systems are also provided.

Lawrence D. Burns e.a., Transforming Personal Mobility, The Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, 2013